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    • Taking PISA Seriously : How Accurate are Low Stakes Exams? 

      Akyol, S. Pelin; Krishna, Kala; Wang, Jinwen (National Bureau of Economic Research, 2018-08)
      PISA is seen as the gold standard for evaluating educational outcomes worldwide. Yet, as it is a low-stakes exam, students may not take it seriously resulting in downward biased scores and inaccurate rankings. This paper ...