Adverse effects of private supplementary tutoring : Dimensions, implications and government responses
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Private supplementary tutoring is defined here as tutoring in academic subjetcs (such as languages and mathematics), and is provided by the tutors for financial gain, and is additional to the provision by mainstream schooling. It does not include extra-curricular subjects such as soccer and ballet, and it does not include extra lessons given by teachers or familiy members on a voluntary basis. The problematic side of tutoring includes distortion of the mainstream curricula, pressure of young pupils, exacerbation of social inequalities, and manipulation of clients by tutors.