Student Motivation as Hierarchical and Multidimensional: Cross-cultural Validation of Personal Investment Theory in the Philippines
Bornasal King, Ronnel
Agustin Ganotice, Fraide Jr.
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Personal investment theory presents a hierarchical and multidimensional model of motivational goals that influence important academic outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-cultural validity of this model in the Philippine setting using both within- and between-network approaches to construct validation. Filipino high school (N = 823) students participated in the study. Their mean age was 14.28 (SD = 0.97). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct validity of the model. The eight types of first order goals (task, effort, competition, social power, social affiliation, social concern, praise, and token goals) formed four second-order goals (mastery, performance, social, and extrinsic), which in turn formed a third-order factor called global motivation. It was found that mastery, performance, and extrinsic were positively related to academic achievement. Social and extrinsic goals were positively related to affect to school. In general, the results supported the cross-cultural validity of the hierarchical and multidimensional model of student motivation in a non-Western context. This study highlights the importance of testing the validity of Western-oriented theories of achievement motivation before they are applied in non-Western settings.