MetadataShow full item record
The booklet takes a close look at the issues surrounding the implementation and effects of grade repetition. This analysis commences with an examination of the five major reasons for the decision to repeat and the sources of that decision (students, families, and schools). The autor also points out that the reasons for applying grade repetititon often differ across developed and developing countries. The booklet moves on examine the effects of grade repetititon along three important dimensions: the effects on academic achievement -where research has indicated short-term gains and long-term problems because grade-repeaters eventually fall further behind, the effects on student self-esteem, peer relationships, and attitudes towards school operations -with negative outcomes in these areas leading to increased risks of dropping out; and the effects of school operations -whereby high levels of grade repetition can lead to increased class sizes and classroom management problems (due to large age differences among pupils in the same classroom).